Optometric practice 5

DR. Ann Benedicto O.D. at ISOPTIK

Funduscopy- A test to look at the back area of the eye to see if there is any damage to the vessels that bring blood to the retina. The doctor uses a device called an ophthalmoscope to check the eye.

Anatomy of the Retina

Credit: Pub. Med. Central

The photoreceptor layer is composed of light-sensitive cells called rods and cones. Light images are converted into electro-chemical signals inside the photoreceptors.

Credit: Pub. Med. Central

Under the photoreceptors is a dark layer called the retinal pigment epithelium or RPE. Cells of the RPE absorb excess light and transport oxygen, nutrients and cellular wastes between the photoreceptors and the choroid.

Credit: Pub. Med. Central

Bruch's membrane separates the blood vessels of the choroid from the RPE layer.

Credit: Pub. Med. Central

The choroid is a layer of blood vessels that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the outer layers of the retina.

Credit: Pub. Med. Central

The sclera is the fibrous, white, outer covering of the eye.

Fundus camera

A fundus camera or retinal camera is a specialized low power microscope with an attached camera designed to photograph the interior surface of the eye, including the retina, optic disc, macula, and posterior pole (i.e. the fundus.) Fundus cameras are used by optometrists ophthalmologist and trained medical professionals for monitoring progression of a disease, diagnosis of a disease (combined with retinal angiography), or in screening programs, where the photos can be analyzed later.

Examiner taking a photo of the fundus from a Non- Mydriatic Retinal camera.

FUNDUS or inner lining of the eye.

Normal fundus- the retina is normally completely transparent. It receives its uniform bright red coloration from vasculature of the choroid. The optic disc is normally a sharply defined, yellowish orange structure, in teenagers its pale pink, in young children it’s significantly paler that may exhibit a central depression known as the optic or physiological cup.

Normal fundus (Credit: University of Iowa Health Care)

Picture of Normal optic disc(Credit: University of Iowa Health Care)

We only have one pair of eyes. Take good care of them. Life is beautiful,

Sight is Life

Basic Eye Care

1. Nutrition can fortify your eyes. Vitamin A, for example carrots can keep your eyes healthy. Anti oxidants along with zinc may help against macular degeneration, a serious disease associated with aging. Anti oxidants vitamin A, bête carotene, C, and E significantly reduced the risk of developing advanced age related macular degeneration.

2. Regular check ups with your eye doctor will help keep your eyes healthy. If you continue to let your eyes deteriorate without visiting the eye doctor, the damage may be too great to reverse.

3. Sunglasses should always be worn in daylight hours when you are outside and you need to be sure that the sunglasses you choose offers UV ray protection.

4. Reading, working on the computer and watching television can really harm your vision. If you are doing any of these things which requires sitting at one place for a long time, it’s important to take frequent breaks and look at things further away to offer your eyes a break and minimize eye fatigue. Take frequent breaks from whatever you’re doing to give your muscles a rest. Position the monitor so it’s at or just below eye level and a little farther away than you’d hold a book when reading.

5. Avoid dangers and accidents. For sports - wear protective glasses that protect you from the front and all sides.

6. Protecting your eyes. In the home workshop – flying wood chips, nails, splashing paint thinner, these are a few of the dangers posed by do it yourself at home. Wear protective eyewear to save your sight.

7. Wear safety goggles when hammering or using hard tools or slow moving electric tools, chemicals and so on. If you need prescription glasses, you can also get prescription safety glasses. These protect you from debris flying at you from all directions.

8. Full face shield – If you’re welding, be sure the shield has special shading to protect your eyes from bright light. Because a shield doesn’t protect you against heavy impact, you should always use safety glasses or goggles under the shield.

9. If you have glasses or contact lens, use them so you won’t have to strain so hard to see.

10. If it bothers your eyes to watch TV in a dark room, keep a light on.

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